Coins- The important finding of the ‘Human Civilization’
As man started showing his presence on the earth, with the course of time he started needing a ‘Medium’ in his course of behavior through which he can sell and purchase the articles of his daily needs. At this stage the mutual exchange of things was introduced i.e. ‘Barter System’. But the disadvantages of the ‘Barter System’ were soon realized; and hence a new method was evolved.
People of the ‘Indus Valley Civilization’ of India choose ‘Grains’ as the medium. The huge granaries founded in the cities of ‘Harappa’ and ‘Mohenjo-Daro were replenished by a system of State tribute; and they fulfilled in the State economy the function of the modern State bank or Treasury. But as the time passed people started finding difficulty in this medium and the ‘Pieces of Metal’ took place of this medium. But people now also started finding difficulty in adapting this mode of medium as they needed weighing scales to measure, their authenticity of purity, their correct weight etc. And in order to sort out the difficulties of this medium i.e. ‘Pieces of Metal’ the process of applying symbol on the pieces of metal or stamping them was invented which resulted in the birth of ‘COINS’.
As nearly 2500 years ago there use to be one to five stamps punched on the coin. That is why those coins are called as ‘Punch Marked Coins’ among the historians and coin collectors. These coins were in the circulation during 3rd B.C to 2nd B.C, but during the starting of 1st century the production of ‘Punch Marked Coins’ stopped.
During 1st century to 3rd A.D the ‘Indo Greek Coins’, coins of ‘Kushan’ dynasty –‘Kujula Kadphises’, the first Kushan ruler of India, his son ‘Wima Kadphises’, his successor ‘Kanishka’, followed by ‘Huvishka’,’Vasudeva’ etc. (there coins were in gold or copper) ‘Kidara Kushan’, ‘Ujjayini’ coins which were in ‘Lead’ and also the coins of other dynasty like ‘Satavahanas’ kings of south, ‘Surasena Kingdom’, ‘Mitra’ dynasty, ‘Panchala Kingdom’, ‘Vatsa kings’, ‘Kosala Kings’, ‘Padmavati Kingdom’, ‘Naga’ dynasty, ‘Sakas’ dynasty etc. were in circulation. This period was post ‘Maurya Dynasty’ and pre ‘Gupta Dynasty’.